• Alphabetical listing of sources that were used in the research and preparation of paper.
  • Manuscripts should conform to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th Edition (2001).
  • References should be indicated in the manuscript by giving the author’s name, with the year of publication in parentheses, e. g. Jones (2004) or (Jones, 2004) as appropriate.
  • If several publications are cited by the same author and from the same year, a, b, c, etc. should be put after the year of publication.
  • All references cited in the text should be listed in full at the end of the paper.
  • The use of lengthy explanatory footnotes should be kept to a minimum.


Citation Table of Contents:


  1. Listing Sources
  2. Spacing
  3. Indentation
  4. Capitalization
  5. Italicize
  6. Punctuation
  7. Spacing And Punctuation
  8. Listing Volume And Issue Numbers
  9. Authors



  1. Journals, One Author
  2. Journals, Two Authors
  3. Legal Citations
  4. Magazines
  5. Newspapers
  6. Books, One Author
  7. Books, Two Authors
  8. Videotapes
  9. Eric
  10. Dissertations
  11. Government Documents
  12. Electronic Formats



Listing sources

  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author.
  • Alphabetize corporate authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name.
  • Full official names should be used.
  • If there is no author, the title moves to the title position, and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title.


  • One hard return, aligned left, will provide a space between all entries.
  • Single-space each entry.


  • Do not indent paragraphs.
  • Indent 0.25’ all bullets and numbered listings.


  • Capitalize all major words in the title of a journal or newspaper.
  • Capitalize only the first word of a manuscript’s title and subtitle.
  • Capitalize the first word of a book’s title and subtitle, and any proper names.
  • Capitalize the first word and the first word of subtitles in theses, unpublished manuscripts, and non-print media.
  • Capitalize all names of universities and their departments, and the names of all publishers.


  • Italicize the title of all journals, newspapers, books, theses, unpublished manuscripts, and non-print media.
  • Volume numbers of journals are also to be italicized.


  • Periods are to be placed after dates, journal, and book titles (no periods however, between the title and parenthetical information), and at the end of each reference entry.
  • All abbreviations should also be followed with a period.  In a reference to a work with a corporate author, the period follows the corporate author.
  • In a reference to a work with no author, the period follows the title, which is moved to the author position.
  • (When an author’s initial with a period ends the element, do not add an extra period.)
    • Comma – use commas to separate authors and to separate surnames and initials. Use a comma to separate the parts of a reference entry not already separated by a period.
    • Ampersand – when listing two or more authors, use a comma, space, and ampersand (&) before the last author.

Spacing and punctuation

  • after commas and semicolons: one space.
  • after colons: two spaces, with the exception of one space after the colon in two-part titles, and one space after the colon that follows the publisher location in the reference list.
  • after periods that separate parts of a reference citation: two spaces.
  • after the periods of the initials in personal names: one space – after internal periods in abbreviations: no space.

Listing volume and issue numbers

  • In journal references, give the volume number and italicize it.
  • Do not use “vol.” before the number.
  • If, and only if, each issue begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, then follow with the page numbers.
  • E.g. 3, 635-647. or 27 (2), 1-7.
  • While listing encyclopedias or books of several volumes, give the volume number as (v. 1, p. 191) or (vols. 1-4) for several volumes.


  • Invert all author names; give only surnames and initials of the author’s first and middle names if known.



Journal Manuscript, One Author

  • Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 23 (3), 635-647.

Journal Manuscript, Two Authors

  • Becker, L. J. & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37 (2), 1-7.

Legal Citations

  • Freeman Contractors, Inc. v. Central Sur. & Ins. Corp., 205 F.2d 607 (8th Cir. 1953)
  • Freeman & Co. v. Bolt, 968 P.2d 247 (Idaho App. 1998)
  • T. Brown Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 132 F.3d 724 (Fed. Cir. 1997)
  • United States v. Spearin, 248 U.S. 132, 136 (1918)

Magazine Manuscript

  • Gardner, H. J. (1981, December). Do babies have a universal song? Psychology Today, 102, 70-77.

Newspaper Manuscript

  • Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 3). Wall Street Journal, p. A1, A25.

Books, One Author

  • Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York: Athenaeum.

Book, Two Authors

  • Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan

Edited Book

  • Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education. New York: Praeger.


  • Mass, J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis [Videotape]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Eric Document

  • Smith, L. S. (1990). How valid are GRE scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-121). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 234).

Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation

  • Devins, G. M. (1981). Helplessness, depression, and mood in endstage renal disease. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.

Government document, available from the GPO

  • National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior (DHHS Publication No. ADM 82-1234). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Electronic Format

  • Visiting date: optionally, one may choose to list the date a document was downloaded or viewed online, should there be a concern that the document might expire in the foreseeable future.  Such dates come at the end of the reference, parenthesized in the form “(visited year, month date)”
    • Note: provided here are two examples of electronic-format examples (the first and third examples are slightly different).  Also provided are several addresses for resources of online referencing.