- Alphabetical listing of sources that were used in the research and preparation of paper.
- Manuscripts should conform to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th Edition (2001).
- References should be indicated in the manuscript by giving the author’s name, with the year of publication in parentheses, e. g. Jones (2004) or (Jones, 2004) as appropriate.
- If several publications are cited by the same author and from the same year, a, b, c, etc. should be put after the year of publication.
- All references cited in the text should be listed in full at the end of the paper.
- The use of lengthy explanatory footnotes should be kept to a minimum.
Citation Table of Contents:
- Listing Sources
- Spacing And Punctuation
- Listing Volume And Issue Numbers
- Journals, One Author
- Journals, Two Authors
- Legal Citations
- Books, One Author
- Books, Two Authors
- Government Documents
- Electronic Formats
- Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author.
- Alphabetize corporate authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name.
- Full official names should be used.
- If there is no author, the title moves to the title position, and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title.
- One hard return, aligned left, will provide a space between all entries.
- Single-space each entry.
- Do not indent paragraphs.
- Indent 0.25’ all bullets and numbered listings.
- Capitalize all major words in the title of a journal or newspaper.
- Capitalize only the first word of a manuscript’s title and subtitle.
- Capitalize the first word of a book’s title and subtitle, and any proper names.
- Capitalize the first word and the first word of subtitles in theses, unpublished manuscripts, and non-print media.
- Capitalize all names of universities and their departments, and the names of all publishers.
- Italicize the title of all journals, newspapers, books, theses, unpublished manuscripts, and non-print media.
- Volume numbers of journals are also to be italicized.
- Periods are to be placed after dates, journal, and book titles (no periods however, between the title and parenthetical information), and at the end of each reference entry.
- All abbreviations should also be followed with a period. In a reference to a work with a corporate author, the period follows the corporate author.
- In a reference to a work with no author, the period follows the title, which is moved to the author position.
- (When an author’s initial with a period ends the element, do not add an extra period.)
- Comma – use commas to separate authors and to separate surnames and initials. Use a comma to separate the parts of a reference entry not already separated by a period.
- Ampersand – when listing two or more authors, use a comma, space, and ampersand (&) before the last author.
Spacing and punctuation
- after commas and semicolons: one space.
- after colons: two spaces, with the exception of one space after the colon in two-part titles, and one space after the colon that follows the publisher location in the reference list.
- after periods that separate parts of a reference citation: two spaces.
- after the periods of the initials in personal names: one space – after internal periods in abbreviations: no space.
Listing volume and issue numbers
- In journal references, give the volume number and italicize it.
- Do not use “vol.” before the number.
- If, and only if, each issue begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, then follow with the page numbers.
- E.g. 3, 635-647. or 27 (2), 1-7.
- While listing encyclopedias or books of several volumes, give the volume number as (v. 1, p. 191) or (vols. 1-4) for several volumes.
- Invert all author names; give only surnames and initials of the author’s first and middle names if known.
Journal Manuscript, One Author
- Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 23 (3), 635-647.
Journal Manuscript, Two Authors
- Becker, L. J. & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37 (2), 1-7.
- Freeman Contractors, Inc. v. Central Sur. & Ins. Corp., 205 F.2d 607 (8th Cir. 1953)
- Freeman & Co. v. Bolt, 968 P.2d 247 (Idaho App. 1998)
- T. Brown Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 132 F.3d 724 (Fed. Cir. 1997)
- United States v. Spearin, 248 U.S. 132, 136 (1918)
- Gardner, H. J. (1981, December). Do babies have a universal song? Psychology Today, 102, 70-77.
- Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 3). Wall Street Journal, p. A1, A25.
Books, One Author
- Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. New York: Athenaeum.
Book, Two Authors
- Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan
- Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education. New York: Praeger.
- Mass, J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis [Videotape]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Smith, L. S. (1990). How valid are GRE scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-121). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 234).
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation
- Devins, G. M. (1981). Helplessness, depression, and mood in endstage renal disease. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.
Government document, available from the GPO
- National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior (DHHS Publication No. ADM 82-1234). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
- Visiting date: optionally, one may choose to list the date a document was downloaded or viewed online, should there be a concern that the document might expire in the foreseeable future. Such dates come at the end of the reference, parenthesized in the form “(visited year, month date)”
- Note: provided here are two examples of electronic-format examples (the first and third examples are slightly different). Also provided are several addresses for resources of online referencing.
- Beckleheimer, J. (1994). How do you cite URL’s in a bibliography? [WWW document]. URL http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html
- Bleuel, J. (1995, November 8). Zitieren von Internetquellen [“Citing sources on the internet”]. [WWW document]. URL http://www.uni-mainz.de/~bleuj000/zitl.html
- Ivey, K. C. (1996, September 2). Citing internet sources [WWW document]. URL http://www.eei-alex.com/eye/utw/96aug.html. Also in The Editorial Eye, 19(8), 10-11. Alexandria: EEI.
- Li, X., and Crane, N. (1996, May 20). Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information [WWW document]. URL http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/estyles.html
- Quinion, M. (1996, March 10). Citing online sources. World Wide Words: Michael Quinion on aspects of English [WWW document]. URL http://clever.net/quinion/words/citation.htm
- Tent, J. (1995, February 13). Citing e-texts summary. Linguist List, 6(210) [Online serial]. URL http://lamp.cs.utas.edu.au/citation.txt
- Walker, J. R. (1995, April). Walker/ACW style sheet; MLA-style citations of electronic sources [WWW document]. URL http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html